LASER is an acronym for “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.” The arena of lasers has expanded to include light-emitting diodes and other sources of light. Various wavelengths used are in the range of red and near infrared spectrum. Each wavelength has a unique interaction with the respective target tissues. High doses of laser have certain drawbacks and, in order to overcome these issues, widespread research is going on low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Low-level laser therapy results in direct biostimulation action on various cells of the body. It is reported that LLLT could enhance the process of wound healing and also has stimulating effects on bone cells and can hasten the repair process of the bone. In spite of many reports of affirmative findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models, and in randomized controlled clinical trials, the effects of LLLT remain debatable. On the contrary, additional research still needs to be done in order to check the efficacy for periodontal treatment. This article focuses on the effects of LLLT on various tissues, its dosage, mechanisms of action, and applications in the field of dentistry.
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Kandaswamy D, Varadan P, Balaji L. Comparison on Surface Roughness and Its Effect on Bonding between Conventional Bur and Laser Cut Cavities: An in vitro Study. Int J Laser Dent 2015; 5 (1):6-11.
Buccal surfaces of human extracted molars were obtained and divided into three groups for cavity preparation. Class V cavities were prepared using diamond bur for Group 1, tungsten carbide bur for Group 2, and Er,Cr:YSGG laser for Group 3. The surface roughness was measured using a 3D noncontact profilometer. The samples were subdivided into subgroups A and B, where subgroup B underwent additional acid-etching procedure. The temperature rise during cavity preparation was recorded using a digital thermostat. The samples were then restored with composite resin following application of bonding agent and light cured for 20 seconds for bond strength evaluation under Universal Testing Machine at a cross speed of 0.5 mm/minutes. The data obtained were finally statistically analyzed. On surface roughness evaluation, laser group (G3) produced maximum surface roughness when compared to conventional bur groups (G1 and G2). On depth of surface roughness evaluation, additional acid etching increased surface roughness of all three groups with laser group (subG3B) followed by acid etching exhibiting maximum surface roughness. On bond strength evaluation, diamond group (G1) exhibited increased bond strength when compared to laser (G3) and tungsten carbide group (G2). On thermal change estimation, all the three groups (G1, G2, and G3) produced minimal temperature rise which was below 5.5. Despite increased surface roughness produced by laser, conventional diamond bur (G1) produced highest bond strength when compared to laser (G3) and tungsten carbide groups (G2).
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Iyer VH, Sudarsan S. A Comprehensive Treatment Protocol for Lingual Frenectomy with Combination of Lasers and Speech Therapy: Two Case Reports. Int J Laser Dent 2015; 5 (1):12-21.
Lingual frenectomy is the procedure that involves removal of a band of tissue, the lingual frenulum which connects the tongue with floor of the mouth. The procedure is generally safe, but caution is necessary as it can cause severe, permanent or untreatable pain, and nerve damage. This procedure could be partial removal of frenum or repositioning of the frenum termed as “frenoplasty” or “frenotomy”, and complete removal of frenum termed as “frenectomy”. Laser frenectomy results are in a lower risk of relapse, such as adhesion, and hence the prognosis is superior to those treated by traditional methods. This article highlights the advantages of using lasers as a treatment option for lingual frenectomy and aftercare with speech therapy for rehabilitation of the patients.
Mucoceles are common benign lesions of the oral cavity that develop because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and are usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lips. Ruptured ducts release the mucous that accumulates into adjacent tissues leading to swelling. Mucoceles are painless and tend to relapse. The purpose of this report is to describe a clinical case of an 11-year-old male child with a 5-mm mucocele on the lower lip treated with a diode laser. Some important concepts are discussed in this report to help the pedodontist in diagnosis and treatment of this pathology with comfort and ease.
Carbon dioxide laser is a highly effective tool for numerous intraoral surgical procedures. Its use for sialolithotomy has been well documented in the literature because of its ability to achieve hemostasis at the time of incision of the Wharton\'s duct and the painless nature of the procedure requiring just topical anesthesia or local anesthetic nerve block at the most. As carbon dioxide laser has a high absorption coefficient for water, saliva in the oral cavity acts as a substrate and hence the deeper penetration of the beam and subsequent injury to adjacent structures is prevented. We describe a case of a giant sialolith of the Wharton\'s duct, which was successfully removed by carbon dioxide laser-assisted sialolithotomy.
Burnice NK Chellathurai,
The diode laser has become an important dental armamentarium because of its exceptional ease of use and affordability. The lasers have many advantages with regard to periodontal treatment. For all soft tissue procedures, the diode laser functions as the handpiece, just like a dental handpiece for all hard tissue procedures. The main advantages of the diode laser for soft tissue applications are precise surgical procedure, bloodless surgery, sterilization of the surgical site, least possible swelling and scarring, negligible suturing, and practically no pain during and after surgery.
In cosmetic dentistry, providing a desirable smile is one of the main concerns. Hyperpigmentation is one of the esthetic concerns especially in patients with black and discolored gums. Gingival depigmentation can be performed by means of surgical blade, electrosurgery, coarse diamond bur, cryosurgery, or lasers. Bearing in mind the advantages of lasers over other modalities of treatment, the present article will target on the management of such a case using diode lasers.