How to cite this article:
Iyer VH, Nandakumar A. In vitro Analysis Comparing Efficacy of Lasers and Desensitizing Agents on Dentin Tubule Occlusion: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study. Int J Laser Dent 2014; 4 (1):1-7.
Dentinal hypersensitivity (DH), one of the commonest causes of dental pain, arises from exposure of dentinal tubules most commonly in the cervical region of the buccal and facial surfaces of the tooth in response to typically thermal, evaporative, tactile, osmotic or chemical stimulus. This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG (dual lasers — hard and soft tissue) and diode lasers (soft tissue lasers) against clinically proven dentifrices prescribed by dentists, easily available over the counter, in treating DH. In 60 recently extracted human teeth, cervical cavities were prepared and etched with 17% EDTA to expose the tubules and eliminate smear layer. The teeth were further divided into groups: Er,Cr:YSGG laser, diode laser and commonly used dentifrices chosen on the basis of previous studies. After treatment, the teeth were subjected for scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis on the same day for quantitative and qualitative analysis of the specimens. Quantitative analysis of the SEM images was done using image analysis software. Er,Cr:YSGG showed superior results in terms of number of tubules per millimeter square, tubule diameter and tubular area. Laser treatment of exposed dentinal tubules with Er,Cr:YSGG promises a noninvasive, pain free and relatively safe treatment option.
How to cite this article:
Iyer VH, sathyanarayanan C. A comparative in vivo study between the conventional Method and Diode Lasers in treatment of Gingival Pigmentation. Int J Laser Dent 2014; 4 (1):8-19.
Esthetic dentistry has positively influenced the overall appearance of an individual and contributed to an enhancement of psychological factors, such as self-esteem, self-confidence and a boost in one\'s lifestyle. Gingival color is attributed by the presence or absence of the melanocytes which is present in the basal layer of the epithelium. An increase in the number of melanocytes along with increase in production of melanin (a dark colored pigment) contribute to the dark hue of the gingival color. Such hyperpigmentation is unesthetic which indirectly brings down the smile and confidence in a person. This article aims to bring the effectiveness of laser treatment by a comparative in vivo study between the conventional methods (use of abrasives) vs 940 nm diode soft tissue lasers in the same patient in two quadrants of their mouth. Ten patients aged between 18 and 21 years were taken into the study. This study also emphasized the psychological factors in addition to the advantage of the treatment using lasers which has made dentistry a pleasurable experience for the patient and the dentist
Meenu G Singla,
Prabhjot S Sodhi
How to cite this article:
Dua A, Mittal R, Singla MG, Sood A, Sodhi PS. Clinical Evaluation of Middle Power Output 810 nm GaAIAs Diode Laser for Treating Severe Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Laser Dent 2014; 4 (1):20-25.
Aim: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and longevity of middle power output 810 nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser in the treatment of severe dentin hypersensitivity
Materials and methods: Forty patients were selected having severe hypersensitive teeth corresponding to 7 and above on the visual analog scale (VAS). Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) was assessed by tactile and thermal stimuli and measured by VAS. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups — treatment group (treated with GaAlAs diode laser) and control/placebo group (treated with curing light). In the treatment group, the laser used was a 810 nm GaAlAs diode laser, having a power of 0.5 W and for a duration of 2 minutes. Patients from both the groups were subjected to three sessions for treatment of dentin hypersensitivity, at intervals of 0 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. Dentin hypersensitivity was measured before and after each session and again evaluated after 12 weeks.
Results: In both the groups, mean values at 0, 24 and 48 hours showed a significant reduction in VAS scores (p-value < 0.05). Intergroup comparison showed that reduction in VAS scores was significantly more in the laser treated group. However, at 12 weeks evaluation, mean reduction in VAS scores decreased in the treatment group indicating recurrence of hypersensitivity.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that GaAlAs middle power output diode laser is effective in providing immediate relief in severe cases of dentin hypersensitivity although long-term results show recurrence of dentin hypersensitivity.
Advances in research are provided by techniques that were forgotten for many decades and innovative procedures to clinical application. With the increase of microbial resistance and development of lighting devices with safe and accurate delivery of energy, today professionals can count on therapies to manage pathogens in different fields of dentistry, especially periodontics and peri-implantitis. When the therapeutic resources have been exhausted, other alternatives can be considered, as the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Photodynamic therapy is a novel noninvasive therapeutic approach with increased pathogen and site specificity. Photodynamic therapy involves use of photosensitizer that is activated by exposure to light of specific wavelength to form toxic oxygen species thereby causing localized photo damage and cell death. Application of photodynamic therapy in periodontics, such as pocket debridement, gingivitis, aggressive periodontitis continue to evolve into a mature clinical treatment modality, and is considered as a promising novel approach for eradicating pathogenic bacteria in periodontitis.
Lip hyperpigmentation is an issue with the young adults when the dark brown patch on the lips makes an unsightly appearance. The laser energy is selectively absorbed by the melanin that causes pigmentation. This causes a photothermal ablation of melanocytes which leads to its disruption and subsequent removal by the body\'s immune system. It generally takes one to three treatments to lighten or remove unwanted pigmentation with laser. With most laser lip pigmentation removal, the pigmentation becomes darker for approximately 1 week and then flakes off. The treatments are spaced at least 1 month apart. There is also usually some redness and mild swelling in the treatment areas for a few days after treatment. The previous studies reported 100% clearance of pigmentation of the lips with a single laser treatment, and recurrence was not observed even after 6 months. This article highlights the use of 940 nm diode dental lasers for lip depigmentation procedure. Dental diode lasers have become a universal alternative tool for esthetic corrections of the oral cavity.
Erbium lasers belong to the mid infrared nonionizing part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Erbium family of lasers consists of Er,Cr:YSGG — 2780 nm wavelength and Er:YAG — 2940 nm wavelength. These wavelengths are absorbed better by hydroxyapatite and water which are the chromophore in the host tissue. The thick soft tissue covering an erupting tooth is generally treated by conventional surgical excision. Another option available is excision using lasers. Various soft tissue lasers, such as diode laser, have been used for this procedure. A new addition to this generation of lasers is Er,Cr:YSGG laser. This article highlights the use of Er,Cr:YSGG in treatment of operculectomy in children. The child did not experience any pain even without the administration of injections, or bleeding during the procedure and was immensely impressed with the excellent healing outcome.