International Journal of Laser Dentistry

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2012 | April | Volume 2 | Issue 1

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SK Ajilal, R Jonathan Sam, Renjith Babu, Premila Suganthan

Morphological Changes in the Caries Excavated Dentin Prepared by Rotary, Carisolv™ and Er, Cr: YSGG Laser (Biolase™) Instruments: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

[Year:2012] [Month:] [Volume:2] [Number:1] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1 - 6]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10022-1009  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The in vitro study presented in this article was performed to evaluate the morphological changes in caries excavated dentin after using three different caries removal methods. These methods include mechanical, chemomechanical (Carisolv™) and Er, Cr: YSGG Laser (Biolase™) by means of scanning electron microscope. Extracted carious human molars were ground to flat surfaces to expose caries surrounded by sound dentin. The caries were then removed with tungsten carbide bur and airotor handpiece (G1), by chemomechanical (Carisolv™) method (G2), and by irradiation with an Er, Cr: YSGG Laser (Biolase™) unit (G3). The samples were then observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with different magnification powers (×800, ×2000 and ×5000). SEM study revealed a considerable difference in the surface characteristics of the dental tissue. The surface which was treated with Er, Cr: YSGG laser (Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium – Scandium – Gallium – Garnet) showed the best result with no residual smear layer followed by surfaces which were chemomechanically excavated with Carisolv™ gel. The treatment with mechanical method resulted in a surface with a smear layer without any micro retention. Thus, from the results obtained, it was concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser produced a scaly, irregular and rugged tooth surface without smear layer, which can be of highly retentive nature. Carisolv™ treated dentin showed uneven surfaces with many undermined areas. There were partially patented dentinal tubules and residues of contaminant smear layer. The dentin surfaces prepared using tungsten carbide bur and spoon excavator produced smearing and smear plugs in the tubular orifices.



Sheetal Parab

An Evaluation of the Surface Condition of Dentin and Its Effect on Microleakage of Metal Copings luted with Glass Ionomer Cement: An in vitro Study

[Year:2012] [Month:] [Volume:2] [Number:1] [Pages:11] [Pages No:7 - 17]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10022-1010  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the surface conditioned dentin and its effect on microleakage of metal copings luted with glass-ionomer cement. Objectives: (1) To evaluate the morphology of unconditioned and conditioned dentin, (2) to evaluate the elemental composition of unconditioned and conditioned dentin, (3) to evaluate and compare the microleakage of metal copings luted with glass-ionomer cement to unconditioned and conditioned dentin, (4) to correlate the effect of dentin conditioning on the microleakage of metal copings luted with glass ionomer cement. Materials and methods: The surface conditioning methods utilized were GC dentin conditioner (group II), air abrasion with 50 ìm aluminum oxide (group III) and Er: YAG laser at 120 mj with 10 Hz frequency (group IV). These methods were evaluated and compared with unconditioned dentin (group I) for morphological and elemental analysis using ESEM and correlated for their effect on microleakage of metal copings luted with glass Ionomer cement (Fuji I). Results: The results of microleakage observed for each group were statistically analyzed by Leven's test, One-way ANOVA and Schiff's test. Unconditioned dentin (group I) showed the maximum microleakage. Er:YAG laser (group IV) irradiation with less power density showed significantly minimum microleakage compared to all other groups, followed by air abrasion (group III) and GC dentin conditioner (group II). Conclusion: Air abrasion and Er: YAG laser conditioning showed less microleakage than surface conditioning with dentin conditioner.



Suchetan Pradhan, Rohit Karnik

Peri-implant Disease—A Clinical Overview (Part 1): Diagnosis, Etiopathology and Risk-Related Aspects

[Year:2012] [Month:] [Volume:2] [Number:1] [Pages:8] [Pages No:18 - 25]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10022-1011  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Peri-implant diseases are infectious diseases and a common cause of complications that may be associated with dental implant failures. With increase in numbers of implants, both newly placed and serving under function, it is necessary to achieve an understanding of the current evidence on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects of peri-implant diseases. As therapeutic modalities are still evolving and consensus regarding their predictability yet to be achieved, a thorough risk assessment and early diagnosis assume added importance. This two parts review attempts to present the current state of evidence regarding the stated aspects of peri-implant diseases including peri-implant mucositis, peri-implantitis and their treatment modalities. The first part of the series presented in this paper addresses key issues regarding the case- definition, diagnostic, etiopatholgy and risk-related aspects while the second part will address the different treatment modalities with special emphasis on the use of laser radiation for peri-implant diseases.



Sukanya Kumar

Laser-Assisted Mental Nerve Neurectomy

[Year:2012] [Month:] [Volume:2] [Number:1] [Pages:3] [Pages No:26 - 28]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10022-1012  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


A 66-year-old male was suffering from trigeminal neuralgia affecting the mental branch. The patient was posted for a peripheral neurectomy considering his age and history. The patient had already undergone a neurectomy 3 years before the present complain. Thus, it was decided that a diode laser should be used, so that the nerves can be ablated and the surgery is less painful and bloodless for the patient. Patient was put on observation following the laser neurectomy, so that the recurrence time between a conventional procedure and a laser neurectomy can be compared. The patient reported with recurrence within 4 months. A second surgery showed that the pain was more from collateral innervation than the main nerve regeneration. The cause for the early recurrence of pain is of clinical significance as lasers are known to enhance nerve regeneration.



Yogesh Doshi, Nikhil Khandge, Girish Byakod

Management of Gingival Pigmentation with Diode Laser: Is It a Predictive Tool?

[Year:2012] [Month:] [Volume:2] [Number:1] [Pages:4] [Pages No:29 - 32]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10022-1013  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


Today, an attractive smile is the vogue for many individuals. Gingival health and appearance are essential components for an attractive smile and removal of unsightly pigmented gingival is the need for a pleasant and confident smile. In some populations, gingival pigmentation seems to be a genetic trait and is irrespective of age and gender, hence gingival pigmentation is termed as physiologic or racial gingival pigmentation. Intraoral pigmentation is seen due to the presence of the fundamental pigment melanin that colors the tissues. Several treatment modalities have been suggested for gingival depigmentation. Many varying results have been observed, but the repigmentation has been documented to occur. The large variation in time of repigmentation may be related to the techniques used and the race of the patient. This case report demonstrates the probable cause of repigmentation where pigmentation has recurred limbs.



D Deepalakshmi

Root Coverage with a Free Gingival Autograft using an Er, Cr: YSGG Laser

[Year:2012] [Month:] [Volume:2] [Number:1] [Pages:2] [Pages No:33 - 34]

   DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10022-1014  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 


The mucogingival problems encountered, are addressed by various periodontal plastic surgical procedures one of which is the free gingival autograft. Grafting procedures can be performed traditionally by use of a scalpel or by the use of lasers. A case of gingival recession with a shallow vestibule, treated with a free gingival graft using an Er, Cr: YSGG laser with a wavelength of 2780 nm is presented here. The objective was to achieve complete root coverage with increased width of attached gingiva in relation to 31 and 41. The recipient bed preparation and harvesting of graft from donor site were done with the Er, Cr: YSGG laser using the appropriate laser parameters so as to ensure proper healing of the free gingival graft. The results showed uneventful healing of donor site with complete root coverage and increased width of attached gingival in the recipient site. The results of the therapy were assessed after 3 months.


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