The word “Laser” is a generic for the many examples of instruments that deliver specific electromagnetic (photonic) energy. The clinician may choose one of many laser wavelengths to achieve adjunctive therapy; the success of a given laser treatment will depend upon the predictability of the interaction of photonic energy with target tissue. This paper serves to present theoretical and practical aspects of laser-tissue interaction, drawing upon evidence-based published investigation.
Diode lasers are fast becoming part of contemporary clinical practice and have since opened up vistas of unprecedented patient care. However, the nuances of their functioning and mechanisms of tissue interaction have not been widely discussed or clearly elucidated. This paper assimilates the facts in literature and throws light on the basics and essentials of this technological advancement that indeed has become a boon to all walks and branches of science.
Dental soft tissue surgery by diode lasers in CW mode often causes carbonization of the tissues with following necrosis and a delay of wound healing. In vitro studies have already shown that superpulsed diode laser surgery has much less disadvantages for the tissues in histological approach. Purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo, if superpulsed mode of operation can realize an improvement for surgeon and patient in soft tissue surgery. A total of 26 patients were treated by diode lasers in different modes of operation for soft tissue surgery. Around 12 patients were treated by superpulsed Elexxion Claros diode laser: 810 nm; 10-50 W Ppeak; 10-20 ìs pulse duration; 12000-20000 Hz; 400 ìm fiber. 14 patients were treated by Vision MDL-10 diode laser: 980 nm; 2.5 W; CW mode and also 400 ìm fiber. Clinical treatment was documented by photos and questionnaires for patients and surgeons. Questions concerned: Carbonization, coagulation, cutting speed, pain, swelling, bleeding, need for drugs, functional reduction and fibrine layer on wounds—during treatment, directly after treatment, after 1 day, after 3 days and after 1 week. The clinical observations and the questionnaires showed in most cases signicant differences between CW mode and superpulsed diode laser treatment in surgery. It could be shown that superpulsed diode laser surgery is superior to continuous wave done treatment. Carbonization and thermal damage of the tissues can be reduced to a minimum, therefore healing is faster as in CW mode surgery. Generation of a soft tissue cut is faster and more precise. Patients have less pain in amount and time period. The need of drugs is reduced. There are less functional restrictions and there is less swelling. The advantages of superpulsed mode of operation for soft tissue diode laser surgery are evident. Continuous wave mode should no longer be implemented in diode laser surgery.
How to cite this article:
Pradhan S, Karnik R. Temperature Rise on External Root Surface during Laser Endodontic Therapy using 940 nm Diode Laser: An in vitro Study. Int J Laser Dent 2011; 1 (1):29-35.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the rise in temperature on the external root surface during 940 nm diode laser assisted root canal therapy. Materials and methods: A total of 120 human single rooted extracted teeth were included in the study. The root canals were enlarged and laser irradiation was performed at four different settings (1 W continuous mode, 1 W gated mode 10/10, 2 W continuous mode and 2 W gated mode 10/10). The rise in temperature was measured at apical, middle and cervical thirds. The temperature changes were evaluated by a thermocouple. The threshold temperature rise of 7°C is commonly considered as the highest temperature limit biologically acceptable to avoid periodontal damage. Results: The mean temperature rise on external root surface in our study was below 7°C in all parameters and all portions of root surface. Conclusion: The 940 nm diode laser at 1 W CM, 1 W gated 10/10, 2 W CM and 2 W gated 10/10 can be considered safe for use for laser assisted root canal therapy.
M Alex Mathews,
BS Jagadish Pai,
How to cite this article:
Srinivas M, Mathews MA, Jagadish Pai B, Walvekar A, Debjit S. Structural and Compositional Changes of Human Root Surfaces on Exposure to Diode Laser (810 nm): An in vitro Study. Int J Laser Dent 2011; 1 (1):37-40.
Introduction: The adjunctive use of lasers in the treatment of inflammatory periodontal diseases is gaining popularity in the dental offices. Thermal and photo-disruptive laser effects contribute to the elimination of periodontal pathogens. Clinical studies have demonstrated a highly supportive effect of many laser systems, when used in conjunction with scaling and root planing. Several in vitro studies have, however, indicated that lasers may severely damage root surface structures and inhibit new cellular attachment when certain energy levels are exceeded. The present study focuses on the structural and compositional changes induced on the root surfaces of teeth following diode laser application with increasing quantum of exposure time.
Aims and objectives: To examine the structural and compositional changes on the roots of extracted human permanent teeth after application of diode lasers (810 nm).
To evaluate and compare structural and compositional changes on roots of extracted human permanent teeth after diode laser application for 15, 30, 45 and 60 seconds.
Materials and methods: A total of 20 single rooted extracted teeth were utilized for this study and divided into group 1: laser application for 15 seconds, group 2: laser application for 30 seconds, group 3: leser application for 45 seconds and group 4: laser application for 60 seconds.
Diode laser (810 nm) application was done in the noncontact mode. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the cemental surface and compositional changes of the teeth in each group were further assessed using EDAX software.
Results: As the exposure time of the diode laser (810 nm) on the root surface was increased, there was a concomitant increase in surface irregularities, manifested in the form of cracks and charring. There was also a decrease in the calcium and phosphorus mass percentage, as the time of laser application increased.
K Mahendranadh Reddy,
Syed Afroz Ahmed,
Esther Priyadarshini S
How to cite this article:
Munisekhar M, Mahendranadh Reddy K, Afroz Ahmed S, Suri C, Priyadarshini S E. Conventional Scalpel vs Laser Biopsy: A Comparative Pilot Study. Int J Laser Dent 2011; 1 (1):41-44.
During a biopsy procedure, it is fundamental to maintain safe and readable cut margins in order to permit histological visualization of a lesion. With the advent of lasers, laser surgery has been shown to exhibit several advantages over scalpel surgery. But, there has been a considerable controversy concerning the reliability of laser biopsies and the effects of thermal damage to the edge of the laser wounds. The aim of this pilot study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of laser biopsy to conventional method with regard to histological peripheral damage. In this study, Waterlase (Er, Cr: YSGG, 2780 nm) and Diode lasers (940 nm) at different power settings and fluences were used. In the biopsy specimens, the cut edges of the incision, when lower settings were applied, were without any adverse effects and there was no difficulty in diagnosis. But whereas in the specimens obtained using higher settings diagnosis was difficult.
Advances in dental ceramics and advent of laser dentistry has simplified esthetic rehabilitation with predictable results. Relatively painless procedures and rapid healing as compared to conventional techniques make it a more patient friendly approach.
Lasers offer many useful clinical applications for general dentists in the diagnosis and treatment of patients, as long as the clinician receives the proper training to use this technology safely and effectively. This article consists of 3 case reports where the Diode laser has been effectively used for treatment of periodontal pockets, crown lengthening and exposure of a canine for orthodontic treatment.