International Journal of Laser Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 6 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2016 ) > List of Articles

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Comparison of Adhesion of Blood Components on Root Surfaces treated with Citric Acid, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, and CO2 Lasers: An in vitro Analysis

Shweta Sabnis, GV Gayathri, Khyati K Chandra, Dhoom S Mehta

Citation Information : Sabnis S, Gayathri G, Chandra KK, Mehta DS. Comparison of Adhesion of Blood Components on Root Surfaces treated with Citric Acid, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, and CO2 Lasers: An in vitro Analysis. Int J Laser Dent 2016; 6 (1):18-23.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10022-1081

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 01-04-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2016; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Objectives

Erstwhile studies have emphasized the importance of establishing a secure fibrin linkage between the tooth-soft tissue interface for formation of a new connective attachment. Thus, periodontal regeneration is reliant on the constant adhesion, maturation and absorption of fibrin clots to the root surfaces which are compromised periodontally. Improved fibrin clot formation and blood cell attachment is being aimed by modification of the root surfaces with different agents. Limited studies have evaluated the attachment of blood cell component on various laser treated root surfaces individually.

Hence, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the adhesion of blood components on the root surfaces treated with citric acid, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG and CO2 lasers by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Materials and methods

The proposed study was conducted on 35 root specimens (5 × 5 × 1 mm) obtained from extracted periodontally compromised permanent teeth. The root specimens were randomly divided in five groups depending upon the type of treatment rendered. Group I: Untreated control group, group II: Citric acid (pH:1), group III: Nd:YAG laser (112.5 m J/pulse), group IV: CO2 laser (12.5 J/cm2), group V: Er:YAG laser (120 m J). Following the respective treatments, fresh human whole peripheral blood obtained from a healthy donor was applied to the external surface of all root specimens. The specimens were then analysed and scored for the adhesion of the blood components with photomicrographs of SEM.

Results

Statistically significant increase in the adhesion of blood components was seen in all the test groups compared to control group both citric acid and Er:YAG laser showed higher adhesion of blood cells to the root surface than the Nd:YAG laser and CO2 laser.

Conclusion

Er:YAG laser enhanced the adhesion of blood components over the treated root surfaces. Hence, it can be safely used as a root bio-modifier ensuring stable fibrin linkage to promote periodontal regeneration.

How to cite this article

Sabnis S, Gayathri GV, Chandra KK, Mehta DS. Comparison of Adhesion of Blood Components on Root Surfaces treated with Citric Acid, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, and CO2 Lasers: An in vitro Analysis. Int J Laser Dent 2016;6(1):18-23.


  1. Fibrin linkage: a precursor for new attachment. J Periodontol 1983 Mar;54(3):141-147.
  2. Scanning electron microscopy observations of initial clot formation on treated root surfaces. J Periodontol 1988 Jun;59(6):403-411.
  3. An in vitro screening model to evaluate root conditioning protocols for periodontal regenerative procedures. J Periodontol 2000 Jul;71(7):1139-1143.
  4. A comparative scanning electron microscopic study on the characteristics of demineralized dentin root surface using different tetracycline HCl concentrations and application times. J Periodontol 2000 Feb;71(2):219-225.
  5. Comparative analysis of root surface smear layer removal by different etching modalities or erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser irradiation. A scanning electron microscopy study. Lasers Med Sci 2010 Jul;25(4):485-491.
  6. A comparative scanning electron microscopic study on the characteristics of demineralized dentin root surface using different tetracycline HCL concentrations and application times. J Periodontol 2000 Feb;71(2):219-225.
  7. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation on dentin slices are modulated with tetracycline or osteoclasts. J Periodontol 2000 Apr;71(4):586-597.
  8. An in vitro screening model to evaluate root conditioning protocols for periodontal regenerative procedures. J Periodontol 2000 Jul;71(7):1139-1143.
  9. Lasers in periodontics: a review of the literature. J Periodontol 2006 Apr;77(4), 545-564.
  10. Cytotoxic effects of periodontally involved surfaces of human teeth. Arch Oral Biol 1971 Apr;16(4): 465-468.
  11. Factors influencing periodontal repair and regeneration. J Periodontol 1982 Oct;53(10):617-625.
  12. Comparative study on morphologic changes and cell attachment of periodontitis-affected root surfaces following conditioning with CO2 and Er:YAG laser irradiations. Photomed Laser Surg 2014 Oct;32(10):553-560.
  13. Application of lasers in periodontics: true innovation or myth? Periodontol 2000 2009;50:90-126.
  14. Effect of a carbon dioxide laser on periodontally involved root surfaces. J Periodontol 1999 Sep;70(9):1046-1052.
  15. Inhibitory effects of a super pulsed carbon dioxide laser at low energy density on periodontopathic bacteria and lipopolysaccharide in vitro. J Periodontal Res 2005 Dec;40(6):469-473.
  16. Effect of ND:YAG laser irradiation and root planing on the root surface: structural and thermal effects. J Periodontol 1995 Dec;66(12):1032-1039.
  17. Effects of Nd:YAG laser radiation on removal of a root surface smear layer after root planing: a scanning electron microscopic study. J Periodontol 1993 Jun;646):547-552.
  18. The effects of CO2, Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers with and without surface coolant on tooth root surfaces. An in vitro study. J Clin Periodontol 1997 Sep;24(9 Pt 1):595-602.
  19. Effect of Er:YAG and Diode lasers on the adhesion of blood components and on the morphology of irradiated root surfaces. J Periodontal Res 2006 Oct;41(5):381-390.
  20. An in vitro screening model to evaluate root conditioning protocols for periodontal regenerative procedures. J Periodontol 2000 Jul;71(7):1139-1143.
  21. A preliminary study on the effects of the Nd:YAG laser on root surfaces and subgingival microflora in vivo. J Periodontol 1992 Aug;63(8): 701-707.
  22. Compositional analysis of root cementum and dentin after Er:YAG laser irradiation compared with CO2 lased and intact roots using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. J Periodontal Res 2002 Feb;37(1):50-59.
  23. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG and Er:YAG laser irradiation on the adhesion of blood components on the root surface and on root morphology. Braz Oral Res 2012 May-Jun;26(3):256-262.
  24. The Research, Science and Therapy Committee of the Academy of Periodontology. Statement regarding use of dental lasers for Excisional New Attachment Procedure (ENAP). AAP Website in August 1999: Available from: http://www.perio.org/resources-products/enap_laser.htm.
  25. Inhibitory effect of low-level laser irradiation on LPS-stimulated prostaglandin E2 production and cyclooxygenase-2 in human gingival fibroblasts. Eur J Oral Sci 2000 Feb;108(1):29-34.
  26. Introduction to lasers. J R Soc Med 1983 Oct;76(10);813-815.
  27. Role of lasers in periodontology: a Review. Annals of Dental Speciality 2013;1(1):8-12.
  28. Effect of root surface alterations on periodontal healing. II. Citric acid treatment of the denuded root. J Clin Periodontol 1982 Nov;9(6):441-454.
  29. Connective tissue attachment to periodontally\diseased roots after citric acid demineralization. J Periodontol 1982 Aug;53(8):515-526.
  30. Morphology of Er:YAG-laser-treated root surfaces. SPIE Proc Lasers Dent 1997;3192:24-31.
  31. The effects of CO2 laser and Nd:YAG with and without water/air surface cooling on tooth root structure: correlation between FTIR spectroscopy and histology. J Periodontal Res 1996 Oct;31(7):453-462.
  32. Chemical characterization of lased root surfaces using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. J Periodontol 1992 Jul;63(7):633-636.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.