International Journal of Laser Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 3 ( 2014 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Laser Physics: Recent Clinical Trends

Amit Dahiya, Minakshi Rana, Anita Hooda, Taruna Arora

Citation Information : Dahiya A, Rana M, Hooda A, Arora T. Laser Physics: Recent Clinical Trends. Int J Laser Dent 2014; 4 (3):74-78.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10022-1060

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-12-2014

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2014; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Dental lasers are becoming an integral part of contemporary dentistry. Lasers can artistically sculpt soft tissues while providing precision, increased visibility, improved impression techniques; predictable healing with decreased scarring, reduced anesthesia and postoperative swelling. With the introduction of the hard-tissue laser, cosmetic bonding procedures are more predictable by providing enhanced bond strength, more comfortable by requiring little to no anesthesia, and less invasive via controlled removal of tooth structure. To protect the faith of patients on the clinician, we must be familiar with the fundamentals of laser physics and tissue interaction so that the proper laser device is used to obtain the treatment objective safely and effectively. This review will discuss about laser physics in detail to make its use more scientific and reliable for both clinicians and patients.


PDF Share
  1. Daniel MD, Hill JS. A history of photodynamic therapy. Aust NZ Ju rgS 9191;60(5):340-348.
  2. American mdeical sasociation. oCuncil no csientific fafairs. Lasers ni Medicine nad uSrgery. AJMA 9186;256(4):900-10.
  3. Acharya SS. Lasers in dentistry—a review. Annals and Essences of Dentistry 2012;IV(4):66-72.
  4. Coluzzi D. Fundamentals of dental lasers: science and instru-- ments. Dent Clin N Am 2004;48(4):751-770.
  5. Melcher J, Chaumette F. Dental pulp exposed to the laser beam. aLser uSrg Med 9187;7(4):347-352.
  6. Yamamoto H. Ooya K. Potential of yttrium aluminium garnet laser ni acries rpevention. J raOl aPthol 9174;3(4):7-15.
  7. Maiman TH. Stimulated optical radiation in Ruby. Nature 1960;187:493.
  8. Castro DJ. The physical principles of laser. Atlas of Cutaneous Laser uSrg 9192;1(1):235-256.
  9. Dederich DN. Laser tissue interaction. Alpha Omegan 1991;84(4):33-36.
  10. Dederick DN. Laser/tissue interaction: what happens to laser light when t i rsitkes istsue? AJDA 9193;124:57-61.
  11. Hitz CB. Understanding laser technology Tulsa: Pennswell; 1991. p. 34-40.
  12. Fuller TA, editor. Surgical laser: a clinical guide. Macmillan; 1987. p. 45-50.
  13. Armon E, Laufer G. Analysis to determine the beam parameters which yield the most extensive cut with the least secondary damage. J Biomech Eng 1985;107:286-290.
  14. Hardee M, Misrendeno JA. Evaluation of intracanal Nd:YAG laser irradiation (abstract). J Endodontics 1990;16:194.
  15. Wright VC, Fisher CJ . Laser surgery ni gynecology. Philadel-- phia: WB Saunders; 1993;1:68.
  16. Bitter NC. A scanning electron microscopic study of the effect of bleaching agents on enamel: a preliminary report. J Prosth Dent 1992;67(6):852-855.
  17. Titley KC, Torneck CD, Ruse ND. The effect of concentrated hydrogen peroxide solutions on the surface morphology of human tooth enamel. J Endod 1988;14(1):69-74.
  18. Nathanson D, Parra C. Bleaching vital teeth: a review and clinical study. Compend Contin Educ Dent 1987;8(7):490-498.
  19. Hanks CT, Fat JC, Wataha JC, Corcoran JF. Cytotoxicity and dentin permeability of carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide vital bleaching materials, in vitro. J Dent Res 1993; 72(5):931-938.
  20. Torres CRG, Borges AB, Kubo CH, et al. Bleaching teeth with hybrid LED/laser devices. Sao Paulo: Editora Santos; 2007. p. 140. (In Portuguese.).
  21. Kwon YH, Huo MS, Kim KH, et al. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on the light reflectance and morphology of bovine enamel. J Oral Rehabil 2002;29(5):473-477.
  22. Sulieman M, Addy M, Macdonald E, Rees JS. A safety study in vitro for the effects of an in-office bleaching system on the integrity of enamel and dentine. J Dent 2004;32(7):581-590.
  23. Sulieman M, Addy M, Macdonald E, Rees JS. The bleaching depth of a 35% hydrogen peroxide based in-office product: a study in vitro. J Dent 2005;33(1):33-40.
  24. Lima DA, Aguiar FH, Liporoni PC, et al. In vitro evaluation of the effectiveness of bleaching agents activated by different light sources. J Prosthodont 2009;18(3):249-254.
  25. Carrasco TG, Carrasco-Guerisoli LD, Froner IC. In vitro study of the pulp chamber temperature rise during light-activated bleaching. J Appl Oral Sci 2008;16(5):355-359.
  26. Papathanasiou A, Kastali S, Perry RD, Kugel G. Clinical evaluation of a 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office whitening system. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23(4):335-358, 40, 43-44 passim; quiz 48.
  27. Eldeniz AU, Usumez A, Usumez S, Ozturk N. Pulpal temperature rise during light-activated bleaching. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2005;72(2):254-259.
  28. Buchalla W, Attin T. External bleaching therapy with activation by heat, light or laser—a systematic review. Dent Mater 2007;23(5):586-596.
  29. Baik JW, Rueggeberg FA, Liewehr FR. Effect of light-enhanced bleaching on in vitro surface and intrapulpal temperature rise. J Esthet Restor Dent 2001;13(6):370-378.
  30. Michida, de Araujo SM, et al. Intrapulpal temperature variation during bleaching with various activation mechanisms. J Appl Oral Sci [online]. 2009;17(5):436-439.
  31. Gerschman JA, Ruben J, Gebart-Eaglemont J. Low-level laser therapy for dentinal tooth hypersensitivity. Aust Dent 1994 Dec;39(6):353-357.
  32. Dantas CMG, et al. In vitro effect of low intensity laser on the cytotoxicity produced by substances released by bleaching gel. Braz Oral Res 2010;24(4):460-466.
  33. Etemadi A, Sadeghi M, Dadjou MH. The effects of low level 660 nm laser irradiation on pain and teeth hypersensitivity after periodontal surgery. J Lasers in Medical Sciences 2011;2(3):103-108.
  34. Pinto CF, Oliveira R, Cavalli V, Giannini M. Peroxide bleaching agent effects on enamel surface microhardness, roughness and morphology. Braz Oral Res 2004;18(4):306-311.
  35. Seghi RR, Denry I. Effects of external bleaching on indentation and abrasion characteristics of human enamel in vitro. J Dent Res 1992;71(6):1340-1344.
  36. Hegedüs C, Bistey T, Flóra-Nagy E, Keszthelyi G, Jenei A. An atomic force microscopy study on the effect of bleaching agents on enamel surface. J Dent 1999;27(7):509-515.
  37. Chng HK, Ramli HN, Yap AUJ, Lim CT. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on intertubular dentine. J Dent 2005;33(5):363-369.
  38. Borges BC, Borges JS, de Melo CD, Pinheiro IV, Santos AJ, Braz R, Montes MA. Efficacy of a novel at-home bleaching technique with carbamide peroxides modified by CPP-ACP and its effect on the microhardness of bleached enamel. Oper Dent 2011 Sep-Oct;36(5):521-528.
  39. Bayrak S, Tunc ES, Sonmez IS, Egilmez T, Ozmen B. Effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPPACP) application on enamel microhardness after bleaching. Am J D ent 2009 Dec;22(6):393-396.
  40. Sobral MA, Lachowski KM, de Rossi W, Braga SR, Ramalho KM. Effect of Nd: YAG laser and acidulated phosphate fluoride on bovine and human enamel submitted to erosion/ abrasion or erosion only: an in vitro preliminary study. Photomed Laser Surg 2009 Oct;27(5):709-713.
  41. Westerman GH, Ellis RW, Latta MA, Powell GL. An in vitro study of enamel surface microhardness following argon laser irradiation and acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment. Pediatr Dent 2003 Sep-Oct;25(5):497-500.
  42. Vlacic, IA Meyers, LJ Walsh. Laser-activated fluoride treatment of enamel as prevention against erosion. Aust Dent J 2007;52:(3):175-180.
  43. Khamaal I. AL-Hasnawi, Wesal A. Al-Obaidi. Effect of Nd- YAG laser-irradiation on fluoride uptake by tooth enamel surface (in vitro). J Orthodontics, Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry March 2014;26(1):154-158.
  44. Tagomori S, Morioka T. Combined effects of laser and fluoride on acid resistance of human dental enamel. Caries Res 1989;23(4):225-231.
  45. Zanin ICJ, Maristela ML, Rodrigues LKA, Pimenta LAF, Hofling JF, Goncalves RB. Photosensitization of in vitro Biofilms by toluidine blue O combined with a light emitting diode. Eur J Oral Sci 2006;114; 64-69.
  46. Overman PR. Biofilm: A new view of plaque. J Contemp Dent Pract 2000;1(3):18-29.
  47. Shibli JA, Martins MC, Nociti FH Jr, Garcia VG, Marcantonio E Jr. Treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis by lethal photosensitization and guided bone regeneration: A preliminary histologic study in dogs. J Periodontol 2003 Mar;74(3):338-45.
  48. Zitzmann NU, Berglundh T, Ericsson I, Lindhe J. Spontaneous progression of experimentally induced peri-implantitis. J Clin Periodontol 2004;31:845-49.
  49. Rinke S, Ohl S, Ziebolz D, Lange K, Eickholz P. Rinke S, et al. Prevalence of peri-implant disease in partially edentulous patients: A practice-based cross-sectional study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2011;22:826-33.
  50. Renvert S, Persson GR. Periodontitis as a potential risk factor for peri-implantitis. J Clin Periodontol 2009;36:10:9-14.
  51. Cho-Yan Lee J, Mattheos N, Nixon KC, Ivanovski S. Residual periodontal pockets are a risk indicator for peri-implantitis in patients treated for periodontitis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012; 23:323-33.
  52. Ferreira SD, Silva GL, Cortelli JR, Costa JE, Costa FO. Prevalence and risk variables for peri-implant disease in Brazilian subjects. J Clin Periodontol 2006;33:929-35.
  53. Turkyilmaz I. One-year clinical outcome of dental implants placed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case series. Implant Dent 2010;19:323-29.
  54. Laine ML, Leonhardt A, Roos-Jansåker AM, Peña AS, van Winkelhoff AJ, Winkel EG, Renvert S. IL-1RN gene polymorphism is associated with peri-implantitis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006;17:380-85.
  55. Albrektsson T, Wennerberg A. Oral implant surfaces: Part 1— review focusing on topographic and chemical properties of different surfaces and in vivo responses to them. Int J Prosthodont 2004;17:536-43.
  56. Wennerberg A, Albrektsson T. On implant surfaces: A review of current knowledge and opinions. Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25:63-74.
  57. Teughels W, Van Assche N, Sliepen I, Quirynen M. Effect of material characteristics and/or surface topography on biofilm development. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006;17(Suppl 2):68-81.
  58. Karoussis IK, Bragger U, Salvi GE, Burgin W, Lang NP. Effect of implant design on survival and success rates of titanium oral implants: A 10-year prospective cohort study of the ITI Dental Implant System. Clin Oral Implants Res 2004;15:8-17.
  59. Renvert S, Polyzois I, Claffey N. How do implant surface characteristics influence peri-implant disease? J Clin Periodontol 2011;38(Suppl 11):214-22.
  60. Lang NP, Tonetti M. Peri-implantitis: Etiology, pathogenesis, prevention and therapy, In: Dental implant complications etiology, prevention, and treatment: Forum SJ (Ed). Blackwell Publishing, West Sussex, United Kingdom 2010.
  61. Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Maghaireh H, Coulthard P, Worthington HV. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: Management of soft-tissues for dental implants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;18.
  62. Bouri A Jr, Bissada N, Al-Zahrani MS, Faddoul F, Nouneh I. Width of keratinized gingiva and the health status of the supporting tissues around dental implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008;23:323-26.
  63. Miyata T, Kobayashi Y, Araki H, Ohto T, Shin K. The influence of controlled occlusal overload on peri-implant tissue. Part 3: A histologic study in monkeys. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2000;15:425-31.
  64. Baron M, Haas R, Baron W, Mailath-Pokorny G. Peri-implant bone loss as a function of tooth-implant distance. Int J Prosthodont 2005;18:427-33.
  65. Dvorak G, Arnhart C, Heuberer S, Huber CD, Watzek G, Gruber R. Peri-implantitis and late implant failures in postmenopausal women: A cross-sectional study. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38: 950-55.
  66. Shabestari GO, Shayesteh YS, Khojasteh A, Alikhasi M, Moslemi N, Aminian A, et al. Implant placement in patients with oral bisphosphonate therapy: A case series. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2010; 12:175-80.
  67. Serino G, Turri A. Extent and location of bone loss at dental implants in patients with peri-implantitis. J Biomech 2011; 11:267-71.
  68. Renvert S, Polyzois I, Maguire R. Reosseointegration on previously contaminated surfaces: A systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res Sep 2009;20(Suppl 4):216-27.
  69. Niemz MH. Laser-tissue interactions-fundamentals and applications. Auage, Springer Verlag, Berlin-New York, 2003;45-149.
  70. Walsh LJ. The current status of laser applications in dentistry. Aust Dent J, 2003;48:146-55.
  71. Welch AJ. The thermal response of laser irradiated tissue. IEEE J Quant Electron 1984;20:1471-81.
  72. Gutknecht N, et al. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop of Evidence Based Dentistry on Lasers in Dentistry. Quintessence Publishing Co. Ltd. 2007.
  73. Duck FA. Physical properties of tissue. Academic Press London- Toronto, 1990.
  74. Ishii J, Fujita K, Komori T. Laser surgery as a treatment for oral leukoplakia. Oral Oncol 2003;39(8):759-69.
  75. Katzir A. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine. Academic Press, Inc, San Diego-Boston 1993.
  76. Nathan MI, Dumke WP, Burns G, Dill Jr FH, Lasher G. Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-n junctions. Appl Phys Lett 1962;1(3):62-64.
  77. Prahl SA. Optical absorption of hemoglobin. Oregon Medical Laser Center: http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/ index.html
  78. Strassl M, Kassenbacher A, Wintner E. Ultrashort laser pulses in dentistry. J Oral Laser Appl 2002;2(4):213-22.
  79. Stabholz A, Zeltzser R, Sela M, Peretz B, Moshonov J, Ziskind D. The use of lasers in dentistry: Principles of operation and clinical applications. Compend 2003;24:811-24.
  80. Kreisler M, Daublander M, Willershausen-Zonnchen B, d‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the survival rate of gingival fibroblast cell cultures. Laser Surg Med 2001a;28(5):445-50.
  81. Rastegar S, Jacques SL, Motamedi M, Kim BM. Theoretical analysis of equivalency of high- power diode laser and Nd:YAG laser for coagulation. Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 1646:150-60, 1992.
  82. Theodoro LH, Haypek P, Bachmann L, Garcia VG, Sampaio JE, Zezell DM, Eduardo C de P. Effect of Er:YAG and diode laser irradiation on the root surface: Morphological and thermal analysis. J Periodontol 2003;74(6):838-43.
  83. White JM, Gekelman D, Shin K, Park X, Swenson T, Rouse B, Tran K, Bullard S, Scott- Beckles B, Oto MJSB, Yamamoto A. Laser interaction with dental soft tissues: What do we know from our years of applied scientific research? Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 2002;4610:39-48.
  84. Adams TC, Pang PK. Lasers in Aesthetic Dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:833-60.
  85. Bach G, Neckel C, Mall C, Krekeler G. Conventional versus laser- assisted therapy of peri-implantitis: A five year comparative study. Implant Dent 2000;9:247-51.
  86. Clayman L, Kuo PC. Soft tissue excision techniques. In Clayman L, Kuo P. Lasers in Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry. Thieme Publ, Stuttgart 1997;63-83.
  87. Convissar RA, Diamond LB, Fazekas CD. Laser treatment of orthodontically induced gingival hyperplasia. Gen Dent 1996;44(1):47-51.
  88. Goharkay K, Moritz A, Wilder-Smith P, Schoop U, Kluger W, Jakolitsch S, Sperr W. Effects on oral soft tissue produced by a diode laser in vitro. J Oral Surg 1978;36:932-37.
  89. Olbricht SM, Stern RS, Tang SV, Noe JM, Arndt KA. Complications of cutaneous laser surgery: A survey. Arch Dermatol 1987;123(3):345-49.
  90. Pinheiro AL, Limeira Jr FA, Gerbi MEM, Ramalho LMP. Effect of 830 nm laser light on the repair of bone defects grafted with inorganic bovine bone and decalciûed cortical osseous membrane. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2003;21(6):383-88.
  91. Romanos GE. Atlas der chirurgischen Laserzahnheilkunde. Urban und Fischer Verlag, München 1999.
  92. Romanos GE, Nentwig GH. Present and future of lasers in oral soft tissue surgery: Clinical applications. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1996;14(4):179-84.
  93. Strauss RA. Laser management of discrete lesions. In : Laser applications in oral maxillofacial surgery. (Eds) Catone G A, Alling C C, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1997
  94. White JM, Goodis HE, Horton J, Gold S. Current status of lasers in soft tissue dental surgery. J Periodontol 1994;65(7):733-35.
  95. Yousuf A, Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Yamada Y, Kinoshita J, Matsumoto K. Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation with the semiconductor diode laser: A case report. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2000;18:263-66.
  96. Zeinoun T, Nammour S, Dourov N, Aftimos G, Luomanen M. Myofibroblasts in healing laser excision wounds. Lasers Surg Med 2001;28:74-79.
  97. Al-Watban FA, Zhang XY. The comparison of effects between pulsed and CW lasers on wound healing. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2004;22(1):15-18.
  98. Gutknecht N, Gogswaardt D, Conrads G, Apel C, Schubert C, Lampert F. Diode laser radiation and its bactericidal effect in root canal wall dentin. J Clin Las Med Surg 2000;57:57-60.
  99. Parkins F. Lasers in pediatric and adolescent dentistry. Dent Clin N Amer 2000;44:821-30.
  100. Santaella MR, Braun A, Matson E, Frentzen M. Effect of diode laser and fluoride varnish on initial surface demineralisation of primary dentition enamel: An in vitro study. Int J Paed Dent 2004;14:199-203.
  101. Tuner J, Hode L. The laser therapy handbook. Grängesberg 2004;231.
  102. Gherlone EF, Maiorana C, Grassi RF, Ciancaglini R, Cattoni F. The use of 980 nm diode and 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser for gingival retraction in fixed prostheses. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4:183-90.
  103. Glauche CE, de Freitas PM, Vieira ND, Marques JL. Qualitative microanalysis of ions and ultrastructuralchanges in dentin exposed to laser irradiation. Lasers Surg Med 2005;36(4): 334-39.
  104. Gutknecht N, Zimmermann R, Lampert F. Lasers in periodontology: State of the art. J Oral Laser Applications 2001a;1:169-79.
  105. Kreisler M, Haj HA, d‘Hoedt B. Clinical efficacy of semiconductor laser application as an adjunct to conventional scaling and root planning. Lasers Surg Med 2005;37:350-55.
  106. Mester E, Spiry T, Szende B, Tota JG. Effect of laser rays on wound healing. Am J Surg 1971;22:532-35.
  107. Patruta S, Franz A, Beer F, Goharkhay K, Sperr W, Moritz A. In vitro stimulatory effect of diode laser on the secretion of tissue inhibitor of matrix mealloproteinases 1(TIMP-1) in human gingival fibroblast: A preliminary report. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4(3):167-70.
  108. Silveira LB, Silveira JB, Ribeiro MS, Garrocho AA, Novelli MD, Marigo H, Growth EB, et al. In vivo study on mast cells behavior following low intensity visible and near infrared laser radiation (abstract 304). Lasers Surg Med 2002;82.
  109. Bach G, Koch HK, Hellerich U, Venzke T. Konventionelle Diodenlaser versus Hochpulstechnik. Laser Journal 1/2008:18-20.
  110. Deppe H, Horch HH. Laseranwendungen in der chirurgischen Zahn-,Mund-und Kieferheilkunde. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:219-22.
  111. Horch HH, Deppe H. Laser anwendungen im Mund-Kiefer- Gesichtsbereich. In Horch HH: Mund-Kiefer-Gesichtschirurgie. München: Elsevier 2007;797-820.
  112. Roodenburg JL, Witjes MJ, deVeld DC; Tan IB, Nauta JM: Lasers in dentistry. Use of lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2002;109:470.
  113. Maiorana C, Salina S. Oral soft tissue pathologies: Long-term evaluation after laser treatment. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:20.
  114. Crippa R. Report on 103 cases of precancerous and other oral lesions treated with a diode laser. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:26.
  115. Bach G. Er:YAG versus Diode-Zwei Wellenlängen made in Baden-Württemberg. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:283-87.
  116. Andersen K. Laser technology- a surgical tool of the past, present and future. Aorn J 2003;78:794-802.
  117. Eichler J, Schneeweiss-Wolter C. Wirkung von Laserstrahlung auf Gewebe. MTA 1999;14:255.
  118. McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser- tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol 1990;35:1175-209.
  119. Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2002;32:639-648.
  120. Svaasand LO, Boerslid T, Oeveraasen M. Thermal and optical properties of living tissue: Application to laser-induced hyperthermia. Lasers Surg Med 1985;5:589-602.
  121. Welch AJ, Motamedi M, Rastegar S, LeCarpentier GL, Jansen D. Laser thermal ablation. Photochem. Photobiol 1991;53: 815-23.
  122. Lippert BM, et al. Wound healing after laser treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Lasers Med Sci. 2003;18(1):36-42.
  123. Grossenbacher R. Laser surgery in the oral cavity. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10(1):19-21.
  124. Guttenberg SA, Emery RW. Laser resurfacing and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Dermatol. Surg 1999;25(6):519.
  125. Coleton S. Laser treatment of atypical oral pigmentation. A case report. NY State Dent J 2006;72(2):22-23.
  126. Damante CA, et al. Histomorphometric study of the healing of human oral mucosa after gingivoplasty and low-level laser therapy. Lasers Surg Med 2004;35(5):377-84.
  127. Eichler J, Eichler HJ. Laser. Springer Verlag, Berlin- Heidelberg- New York 1991.
  128. Manni J. Surgical diode lasers. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10: 377-80.
  129. Pick RM, Powel GL. Lasers in dentistry, soft tissue procedures. Dent Clin North Am 1993;37:281-97.
  130. Scherer H, Fuhere A, Hopf J. Current status of laser surgery of benign diseases in the area of soft palate. Laryngol Rhinol Otol 1994;73:14-18.
  131. Morita T, Okamura Y, Ookub K, et al. A new instrument for hemostatic vascular management in endoscopic surgery: Diode laser(STATLaser-SDL) and it‘s hand piece (Dual Hook). J Clin Laser Med Surg 1999;17:57-61.
  132. Claus PN. Comparative study on CW mode versus pulsed mode in AlGaAs diode lasers. SPIE Proc 2001;4249:44-49.
  133. Krause F, Frentzen M. Dioden- Laser in der zahnmedizinischen Anwendung. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/ 07:151-58.
  134. Coluzzi DJ. Lasers and soft tissue curettage: An update. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23:1104-111.
  135. Dederich DN. Laser curettage: An overview. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23:1097-103.
  136. Schwarz F, Sculean A, Berakdar M, Szathmari L, Geoerg T, Becker J. In vivo and in vitro effects of an Er:YAG laser, a diode laser, and scaling and root-planning on periodontally diseased root surfaces: A comparative histologic study. Lasers Surg Med 2003;32:359-66.
  137. Fontana CR, Kurachi C, Mendonca CR, Bagnato VS. Temperature variation at soft periodontal and rat bone tissue during a medium- power diode laser exposure. Photomed Lasres Surg 2004;22:519-22.
  138. Gold SJ, Vilardi MA. Pulsed laser beam effect on gingiva. J Clin Periodontol 1994;21(6):391-96.
  139. Borrajo JL, Varela LG, Castro LG, Rodriguez-Nunez I, Torreira MG: Diode laser (980 nm) as an adjunct to scaling and root planning. Photomed Laser Surg 2004;22:509-12.
  140. Kreisler M, Al Haj H, Daublander M, Gotz H, Duschner H, Willershausen B, D‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on root surface in vitro. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2002;20:63-69.
  141. Meister J, Franzen R. Dentale Lasersysteme Teil II: Der Dioden- Laser. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/07: 185-89.
  142. Alam T, Dawasaz AA, Thukral N, Jangam D. Surgical diode laser excision for peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma: A case report and literature review. J Oral Laser Applications 2008;8:43- 49.
  143. Convissar RA. An overview of laser wavelength used in dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2000;44:753-765.
  144. Kreisler M, Meier C, Stender E, Daubländer M, Willershausen- Zönnchen B, de Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the attachment rate of periodontal ligament cells: An in vitro study. J Periodontol Oct 2001;72(10):1312-17.
  145. Black P. Der Dentallaser in der oralen Chirurgie-Masterthese- Teil2 Laser Journal 1/2007: 16-21, 2007 146. Van Hillegersberg R: Fundamentals of Laser Surgery Eur J Surg Jan 1997;163(1): 3-12.
  146. Haina D, Landthaler M, Braun-Falco O, Waidelich W. Comparison of the maximum coagulation depth in human skin for different types of medical lasers. Lasers Surg Med 1987;7(4): 355-62.
  147. Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract May 2002;32(3):639-48.
  148. McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser-tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol Sep 1990;35(9):1175-209.
  149. Reinisch L. Laser physics and tissue interaction. Otolaryngol Clin North Am Dec 1996;29(6):893-914.
  150. Coluzzi DJ. Fundamentals of dental lasers: Science and instruments. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:751-70.
  151. Maiorana C, Salina S. Versatility of superpulsed diode laser in oral surgery: A clinical report. J Oral Laser Appl 2006;6: 193-99.
  152. Gold SI, Villardi MA. Pulsed laser beam effects on gingiva. J Clin Periodontol 1994;21:391-96.
  153. Kamp M Halbleiterlaser. Vorlesung WS 2006, Technische Physik, Uni Würzburg 2006.
  154. Schäfer O. Die Entwicklung des Diodenlasers bis zur Digitalpulstechnik. Laser Journal 2/2008:6-7.
  155. Nanami T, Shiba H, Ikeuchi S, Nagai T, Asanami S, Shibata T. Clinical applications and basic studies of laser in dentistry and oral surgery. Keio J Med Dec.1993;42(4):199-201.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.