International Journal of Laser Dentistry

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 3 ( 2012 ) > List of Articles

CASE REPORT

Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Depigmentation using Scalpel and Diode Laser with 1 year Follow-up

S Anoop, Seba Abraham, R Ambili, Nuthen Mathew

Citation Information : Anoop S, Abraham S, Ambili R, Mathew N. Comparative Evaluation of Gingival Depigmentation using Scalpel and Diode Laser with 1 year Follow-up. Int J Laser Dent 2012; 2 (3):87-91.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10022-1026

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-12-2012

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2012; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Abstract

Gingival hyperpigmentation is a major esthetic concern for many people. Though it is not a medical problem, many people complain of dark gums as unesthetic. Gingival depigmentation is a periodontal plastic surgical procedure, whereby the hyperpigmentation is removed or reduced by various techniques. For depigmentation of gingiva, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as scalpel, cryosurgery, electrosurgery, lasers, etc. This article compares management of two cases with scalpel and laser and also highlights the relevance of lasers.


PDF Share
  1. Dummett CO. Oral pigmentation. First symposium of oral pigmentation. J Periodontol 1960;31:356.
  2. Cicek Y, Ertas U. The normal and pathological pigmentation of oral mucous membrane: A review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2003:15;4(3):76-86.
  3. Tamizi M, Taheri M. Treatment of severe physiologic gingival pigmentation with free gingival autograft. Quintessence Int 1996;27(8):555-58.
  4. Gnanaesekhar JD, Al-Duwairi YS. Electrosurgery in dentistry. Quintessence Int (Berlin) 1998;29(10):649-54.
  5. Yeh CJ. Cryosurgical management of melanin pigmented gingiva. Oral Surg Oral Med, Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodont 1998;86(6):660-63.
  6. Bishop K. Treatment of unslightly oral pigmentation: A case report. Dental Update 1994;21(6):236-37.
  7. Stabholz A, Zeltser R, Sela M, Peretz B, Moshonov J, Ziskind D, Stabholz A. The use of lasers in dentistry: Principles of operation and clinical applications. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry 2003;24(12):935-48.
  8. Lagdive S, Doshi Y, Marawar PP. Management of gingival hyperpigmentation using surgical blade and diode laser therapy: A comparative study. J Oral Laser Appl 2009;9:41-47.
  9. Mani A, Mani S, Shah S. Management of gingival pigmentation using three methods: Lasers, scalpel, abrasion with diamond bur. A case report. J Oral Laser Appl 2009;227-32.
  10. Kwang-Myung L, Dong-Yeol L, Seung-Il S, Young-Hyuk K, Jong-Hyuk C, Yeek H. A comparison of different gingival depigmentation techniques: Ablation by erbium: yttriumaluminum- garnet laser and abrasion by rotary instruments. J Periodontal Implant Sci 2011;41(4):201-07.
  11. Almas K, Sadiq W. Surgical treatment of melanin-pigmented gingiva: An esthetic approach. Ind J Dent Res 2002;13(2):70-73.
  12. Mokeem SA. Management of gingival hyperpigmentation by surgical abrasion: Report of three cases. Saudi Dent J 2006;18(3): 162-66.
  13. Ishida CE, Ramos-e-Silva M. Cryosurgery in oral lesions. Int J Dermatol 1998;37:283-85.
  14. Martens LC. Laser assisted pediatric dentistry: Review and outlook. J Oral Laser Applic 2003;3:203-09.
  15. Zola M, Rosenberg D, Anakwa K. Treatment of a ranula using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2006;64(5): 823-27.
  16. Rizoiu IM, Eversole LR, Kunmel AC. Effects of an erbium chromium yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser on mucocutaneous soft tissues. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1996;82(4):386-95.
  17. Ergun G, Cekic I, Lassila LV, Vallittu PK. Bonding of lithiumdisilicate ceramic to enamel and dentin using orthotropic fiberreinforced composite at the interface. Acta Odontol Scand 2006;5:293-99.
  18. Kanakuri K, Kawamoto Y, Matsumura H. Influence of temporary cement remnant and surface cleaning method on bond strength to dentin of a composite luting system. J Oral Sci 2005;1:9-13.
  19. Rosales-Leal JI, Osorio R, Toledano M, Cabrerizo-Vilchez MA, Millstein PL. Influence of eugenol contamination on the wetting of ground and etched dentin. Oper Dent 2003;6:695-99.
  20. Terata R. Characterization of enamel and dentin surfaces after removal of temporary cement study on removal of temporary cement. Dent Mater J 1993;1:18-28.
  21. Sarac D, Sarac YS, Kulunk S, Kulunk T. Effect of the dentin cleansing techniques on dentin wetting and on the bond strength of a resin luting agent. J Prosthet Dent 2005;4:363-69.
  22. Aoki A, Miura M, Akiyama F, et al. In vitro evaluation of Er:YAG laser scaling of subgingival calculus in comparison with ultrasonic scaling. J Periodontal Res 2000;5:266-77.
  23. Folwaczny M, Mehl A, Haffner C, Benz C, Hickel R. Root substance removal with Er:YAG laser radiation at different parameters using a new delivery system. J Periodontol 2000;2:147-55.
  24. Yamaguchi H, Kobayashi K, Osada R, et al. Effects of irradiation of an erbium:YAG laser on root surfaces. J Periodontol 1997;12:1151-55.
  25. Omae M, Shinnou Y, Tanaka K, et al. XPS analysis of the dentin irradiated by Er: YAG laser. Dent Mater J 2009;4:471-76.
  26. American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, Laser Institute of America: New York; ANSI Z; 1993. ANSI Z Publication 136.1.
  27. Mary S. Laser safety: Practical measures and latest legislative requirements. J Perioper Pract 2011;21(9):299-303.
  28. Schuller DE. Use of the laser in the oral cavity. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 1990;23(1):31-42.
  29. Andersen K. Safe use of lasers in the operating room-what perioperative nurses should know. AORN J 2004;79:171-88.
  30. Szymanska J. Work-related vision hazards in the dental office. Ann Agric Environ Med 2000;7:1-4.
  31. Rice JH. Laser safety officer: A vital role for dental assistants. Dent Assist 2005;74(1):26-27.
  32. Piccione PJ. Dental laser safety. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48(4):795-807.
  33. Bargman H. Laser safety guidelines. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2010;3(5):18-19.
  34. Misch CE, Perel ML, Wang HL, Sammartino G, Galindo- Moreno P, Trisi P, et al. Implant success, survival and failure: The international congress of oral implantologists (ICOI). Pisa consensus conference. Implant Dent 2008;17:5-15.
  35. Boldt J, Knapp W, Proff P, Rottner K, Richter EJ. Measurement of tooth and implant mobility under physiological loading conditions. Ann Anat 14 Oct 2011.
  36. Zix J, Hug S, Kessler-Liechti G, Mericske-Stern R. Measurement of dental implant stability by resonance frequency analysis and damping capacity assessment: Comparison of both techniques in a clinical trial. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008;23: 525-30.
  37. Sennerby L, Meredith N. Implant stability measurements using resonance frequency analysis: Biological and biomechanical aspects and clinical implications. Periodontol 2000. 2008;47: 51-66.
  38. Aparicio C, Lang NP, Rangert B. Validity and clinical significance of biomechanical testing of implant/bone interface. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006;17(Suppl 2):2-7.
  39. Sennerby L, Persson LG, Berglundh T, Wennerberg A, Lindhe J. Implant stability during initiation and resolution of experimental peri-implantitis: An experimental study in the dog. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2005;7:136-40.
  40. Furst MM, Salvi GE, Lang NP, Persson GR. Bacterial colonization immediately after installation on oral titanium implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 2007:18:501-08.
  41. De Boever AL, De Boever JA. Early colonization of nonsubmerged dental implants in patients with a history of advanced aggressive periodontitis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006: 17:8-17.
  42. Hultin M, Gustafsson A, Hallström H, Johansson LA, Ekfeldt A, Klinge B. Microbiological findings and host response in patients with peri-implantitis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2002; 13:349-58.
  43. Pye AD, Lockhart DE, Dawson MP, Murray CA, Smith AJ. A review of dental implants and infection. J Hosp Infect 2009; 72:104-10.
  44. Faveri M, Gonçalves LF, Feres M, Figueiredo LC, Gouveia LA, et al. Prevalence and microbiological diversity of Archaea in peri-implantitis subjects by 16S ribosomal RNA clonal analysis. J Periodontal Res 2011;46:338-44.
  45. Lindhe J, Berglundh T, Ericsson I, Liljenberg B, Marinello C. Experimental breakdown of peri-implant and periodontal tissues. A study in the beagle dog. Clin Oral Implants Res 1992;3:9-16.
  46. Heitz-Mayfield LJA, Lang NP. Comparative biology of chronic and aggressive periodontitis vs peri-implantitis. Periodontology
  47. 2010;53:167-81.
  48. Zitzmann NU, Berglundh T, Ericsson I, Lindhe J. Spontaneous progression of experimentally induced peri-implantitis. J Clin Periodontol 2004;31:845-49.
  49. Rinke S, Ohl S, Ziebolz D, Lange K, Eickholz P. Rinke S, et al. Prevalence of peri-implant disease in partially edentulous patients: A practice-based cross-sectional study. Clin Oral Implants Res 2011;22:826-33.
  50. Renvert S, Persson GR. Periodontitis as a potential risk factor for peri-implantitis. J Clin Periodontol 2009;36:10:9-14.
  51. Cho-Yan Lee J, Mattheos N, Nixon KC, Ivanovski S. Residual periodontal pockets are a risk indicator for peri-implantitis in patients treated for periodontitis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2012; 23:323-33.
  52. Ferreira SD, Silva GL, Cortelli JR, Costa JE, Costa FO. Prevalence and risk variables for peri-implant disease in Brazilian subjects. J Clin Periodontol 2006;33:929-35.
  53. Turkyilmaz I. One-year clinical outcome of dental implants placed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case series. Implant Dent 2010;19:323-29.
  54. Laine ML, Leonhardt A, Roos-Jansåker AM, Peña AS, van Winkelhoff AJ, Winkel EG, Renvert S. IL-1RN gene polymorphism is associated with peri-implantitis. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006;17:380-85.
  55. Albrektsson T, Wennerberg A. Oral implant surfaces: Part 1— review focusing on topographic and chemical properties of different surfaces and in vivo responses to them. Int J Prosthodont 2004;17:536-43.
  56. Wennerberg A, Albrektsson T. On implant surfaces: A review of current knowledge and opinions. Oral Maxillofac Implants 2010;25:63-74.
  57. Teughels W, Van Assche N, Sliepen I, Quirynen M. Effect of material characteristics and/or surface topography on biofilm development. Clin Oral Implants Res 2006;17(Suppl 2):68-81.
  58. Karoussis IK, Bragger U, Salvi GE, Burgin W, Lang NP. Effect of implant design on survival and success rates of titanium oral implants: A 10-year prospective cohort study of the ITI Dental Implant System. Clin Oral Implants Res 2004;15:8-17.
  59. Renvert S, Polyzois I, Claffey N. How do implant surface characteristics influence peri-implant disease? J Clin Periodontol 2011;38(Suppl 11):214-22.
  60. Lang NP, Tonetti M. Peri-implantitis: Etiology, pathogenesis, prevention and therapy, In: Dental implant complications etiology, prevention, and treatment: Forum SJ (Ed). Blackwell Publishing, West Sussex, United Kingdom 2010.
  61. Esposito M, Grusovin MG, Maghaireh H, Coulthard P, Worthington HV. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: Management of soft-tissues for dental implants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;18.
  62. Bouri A Jr, Bissada N, Al-Zahrani MS, Faddoul F, Nouneh I. Width of keratinized gingiva and the health status of the supporting tissues around dental implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008;23:323-26.
  63. Miyata T, Kobayashi Y, Araki H, Ohto T, Shin K. The influence of controlled occlusal overload on peri-implant tissue. Part 3: A histologic study in monkeys. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2000;15:425-31.
  64. Baron M, Haas R, Baron W, Mailath-Pokorny G. Peri-implant bone loss as a function of tooth-implant distance. Int J Prosthodont 2005;18:427-33.
  65. Dvorak G, Arnhart C, Heuberer S, Huber CD, Watzek G, Gruber R. Peri-implantitis and late implant failures in postmenopausal women: A cross-sectional study. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38: 950-55.
  66. Shabestari GO, Shayesteh YS, Khojasteh A, Alikhasi M, Moslemi N, Aminian A, et al. Implant placement in patients with oral bisphosphonate therapy: A case series. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2010; 12:175-80.
  67. Serino G, Turri A. Extent and location of bone loss at dental implants in patients with peri-implantitis. J Biomech 2011; 11:267-71.
  68. Renvert S, Polyzois I, Maguire R. Reosseointegration on previously contaminated surfaces: A systematic review. Clin Oral Implants Res Sep 2009;20(Suppl 4):216-27.
  69. Niemz MH. Laser-tissue interactions-fundamentals and applications. Auage, Springer Verlag, Berlin-New York, 2003;45-149.
  70. Walsh LJ. The current status of laser applications in dentistry. Aust Dent J, 2003;48:146-55.
  71. Welch AJ. The thermal response of laser irradiated tissue. IEEE J Quant Electron 1984;20:1471-81.
  72. Gutknecht N, et al. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop of Evidence Based Dentistry on Lasers in Dentistry. Quintessence Publishing Co. Ltd. 2007.
  73. Duck FA. Physical properties of tissue. Academic Press London- Toronto, 1990.
  74. Ishii J, Fujita K, Komori T. Laser surgery as a treatment for oral leukoplakia. Oral Oncol 2003;39(8):759-69.
  75. Katzir A. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine. Academic Press, Inc, San Diego-Boston 1993.
  76. Nathan MI, Dumke WP, Burns G, Dill Jr FH, Lasher G. Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-n junctions. Appl Phys Lett 1962;1(3):62-64.
  77. Prahl SA. Optical absorption of hemoglobin. Oregon Medical Laser Center: http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/ index.html
  78. Strassl M, Kassenbacher A, Wintner E. Ultrashort laser pulses in dentistry. J Oral Laser Appl 2002;2(4):213-22.
  79. Stabholz A, Zeltzser R, Sela M, Peretz B, Moshonov J, Ziskind D. The use of lasers in dentistry: Principles of operation and clinical applications. Compend 2003;24:811-24.
  80. Kreisler M, Daublander M, Willershausen-Zonnchen B, d‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the survival rate of gingival fibroblast cell cultures. Laser Surg Med 2001a;28(5):445-50.
  81. Rastegar S, Jacques SL, Motamedi M, Kim BM. Theoretical analysis of equivalency of high- power diode laser and Nd:YAG laser for coagulation. Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 1646:150-60, 1992.
  82. Theodoro LH, Haypek P, Bachmann L, Garcia VG, Sampaio JE, Zezell DM, Eduardo C de P. Effect of Er:YAG and diode laser irradiation on the root surface: Morphological and thermal analysis. J Periodontol 2003;74(6):838-43.
  83. White JM, Gekelman D, Shin K, Park X, Swenson T, Rouse B, Tran K, Bullard S, Scott- Beckles B, Oto MJSB, Yamamoto A. Laser interaction with dental soft tissues: What do we know from our years of applied scientific research? Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 2002;4610:39-48.
  84. Adams TC, Pang PK. Lasers in Aesthetic Dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:833-60.
  85. Bach G, Neckel C, Mall C, Krekeler G. Conventional versus laser- assisted therapy of peri-implantitis: A five year comparative study. Implant Dent 2000;9:247-51.
  86. Clayman L, Kuo PC. Soft tissue excision techniques. In Clayman L, Kuo P. Lasers in Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry. Thieme Publ, Stuttgart 1997;63-83.
  87. Convissar RA, Diamond LB, Fazekas CD. Laser treatment of orthodontically induced gingival hyperplasia. Gen Dent 1996;44(1):47-51.
  88. Goharkay K, Moritz A, Wilder-Smith P, Schoop U, Kluger W, Jakolitsch S, Sperr W. Effects on oral soft tissue produced by a diode laser in vitro. J Oral Surg 1978;36:932-37.
  89. Olbricht SM, Stern RS, Tang SV, Noe JM, Arndt KA. Complications of cutaneous laser surgery: A survey. Arch Dermatol 1987;123(3):345-49.
  90. Pinheiro AL, Limeira Jr FA, Gerbi MEM, Ramalho LMP. Effect of 830 nm laser light on the repair of bone defects grafted with inorganic bovine bone and decalciûed cortical osseous membrane. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2003;21(6):383-88.
  91. Romanos GE. Atlas der chirurgischen Laserzahnheilkunde. Urban und Fischer Verlag, München 1999.
  92. Romanos GE, Nentwig GH. Present and future of lasers in oral soft tissue surgery: Clinical applications. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1996;14(4):179-84.
  93. Strauss RA. Laser management of discrete lesions. In : Laser applications in oral maxillofacial surgery. (Eds) Catone G A, Alling C C, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1997
  94. White JM, Goodis HE, Horton J, Gold S. Current status of lasers in soft tissue dental surgery. J Periodontol 1994;65(7):733-35.
  95. Yousuf A, Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Yamada Y, Kinoshita J, Matsumoto K. Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation with the semiconductor diode laser: A case report. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2000;18:263-66.
  96. Zeinoun T, Nammour S, Dourov N, Aftimos G, Luomanen M. Myofibroblasts in healing laser excision wounds. Lasers Surg Med 2001;28:74-79.
  97. Al-Watban FA, Zhang XY. The comparison of effects between pulsed and CW lasers on wound healing. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2004;22(1):15-18.
  98. Gutknecht N, Gogswaardt D, Conrads G, Apel C, Schubert C, Lampert F. Diode laser radiation and its bactericidal effect in root canal wall dentin. J Clin Las Med Surg 2000;57:57-60.
  99. Parkins F. Lasers in pediatric and adolescent dentistry. Dent Clin N Amer 2000;44:821-30.
  100. Santaella MR, Braun A, Matson E, Frentzen M. Effect of diode laser and fluoride varnish on initial surface demineralisation of primary dentition enamel: An in vitro study. Int J Paed Dent 2004;14:199-203.
  101. Tuner J, Hode L. The laser therapy handbook. Grängesberg 2004;231.
  102. Gherlone EF, Maiorana C, Grassi RF, Ciancaglini R, Cattoni F. The use of 980 nm diode and 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser for gingival retraction in fixed prostheses. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4:183-90.
  103. Glauche CE, de Freitas PM, Vieira ND, Marques JL. Qualitative microanalysis of ions and ultrastructuralchanges in dentin exposed to laser irradiation. Lasers Surg Med 2005;36(4): 334-39.
  104. Gutknecht N, Zimmermann R, Lampert F. Lasers in periodontology: State of the art. J Oral Laser Applications 2001a;1:169-79.
  105. Kreisler M, Haj HA, d‘Hoedt B. Clinical efficacy of semiconductor laser application as an adjunct to conventional scaling and root planning. Lasers Surg Med 2005;37:350-55.
  106. Mester E, Spiry T, Szende B, Tota JG. Effect of laser rays on wound healing. Am J Surg 1971;22:532-35.
  107. Patruta S, Franz A, Beer F, Goharkhay K, Sperr W, Moritz A. In vitro stimulatory effect of diode laser on the secretion of tissue inhibitor of matrix mealloproteinases 1(TIMP-1) in human gingival fibroblast: A preliminary report. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4(3):167-70.
  108. Silveira LB, Silveira JB, Ribeiro MS, Garrocho AA, Novelli MD, Marigo H, Growth EB, et al. In vivo study on mast cells behavior following low intensity visible and near infrared laser radiation (abstract 304). Lasers Surg Med 2002;82.
  109. Bach G, Koch HK, Hellerich U, Venzke T. Konventionelle Diodenlaser versus Hochpulstechnik. Laser Journal 1/2008:18-20.
  110. Deppe H, Horch HH. Laseranwendungen in der chirurgischen Zahn-,Mund-und Kieferheilkunde. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:219-22.
  111. Horch HH, Deppe H. Laser anwendungen im Mund-Kiefer- Gesichtsbereich. In Horch HH: Mund-Kiefer-Gesichtschirurgie. München: Elsevier 2007;797-820.
  112. Roodenburg JL, Witjes MJ, deVeld DC; Tan IB, Nauta JM: Lasers in dentistry. Use of lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2002;109:470.
  113. Maiorana C, Salina S. Oral soft tissue pathologies: Long-term evaluation after laser treatment. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:20.
  114. Crippa R. Report on 103 cases of precancerous and other oral lesions treated with a diode laser. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:26.
  115. Bach G. Er:YAG versus Diode-Zwei Wellenlängen made in Baden-Württemberg. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:283-87.
  116. Andersen K. Laser technology- a surgical tool of the past, present and future. Aorn J 2003;78:794-802.
  117. Eichler J, Schneeweiss-Wolter C. Wirkung von Laserstrahlung auf Gewebe. MTA 1999;14:255.
  118. McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser- tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol 1990;35:1175-209.
  119. Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2002;32:639-648.
  120. Svaasand LO, Boerslid T, Oeveraasen M. Thermal and optical properties of living tissue: Application to laser-induced hyperthermia. Lasers Surg Med 1985;5:589-602.
  121. Welch AJ, Motamedi M, Rastegar S, LeCarpentier GL, Jansen D. Laser thermal ablation. Photochem. Photobiol 1991;53: 815-23.
  122. Lippert BM, et al. Wound healing after laser treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Lasers Med Sci. 2003;18(1):36-42.
  123. Grossenbacher R. Laser surgery in the oral cavity. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10(1):19-21.
  124. Guttenberg SA, Emery RW. Laser resurfacing and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Dermatol. Surg 1999;25(6):519.
  125. Coleton S. Laser treatment of atypical oral pigmentation. A case report. NY State Dent J 2006;72(2):22-23.
  126. Damante CA, et al. Histomorphometric study of the healing of human oral mucosa after gingivoplasty and low-level laser therapy. Lasers Surg Med 2004;35(5):377-84.
  127. Eichler J, Eichler HJ. Laser. Springer Verlag, Berlin- Heidelberg- New York 1991.
  128. Manni J. Surgical diode lasers. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10: 377-80.
  129. Pick RM, Powel GL. Lasers in dentistry, soft tissue procedures. Dent Clin North Am 1993;37:281-97.
  130. Scherer H, Fuhere A, Hopf J. Current status of laser surgery of benign diseases in the area of soft palate. Laryngol Rhinol Otol 1994;73:14-18.
  131. Morita T, Okamura Y, Ookub K, et al. A new instrument for hemostatic vascular management in endoscopic surgery: Diode laser(STATLaser-SDL) and it‘s hand piece (Dual Hook). J Clin Laser Med Surg 1999;17:57-61.
  132. Claus PN. Comparative study on CW mode versus pulsed mode in AlGaAs diode lasers. SPIE Proc 2001;4249:44-49.
  133. Krause F, Frentzen M. Dioden- Laser in der zahnmedizinischen Anwendung. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/ 07:151-58.
  134. Coluzzi DJ. Lasers and soft tissue curettage: An update. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23:1104-111.
  135. Dederich DN. Laser curettage: An overview. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23:1097-103.
  136. Schwarz F, Sculean A, Berakdar M, Szathmari L, Geoerg T, Becker J. In vivo and in vitro effects of an Er:YAG laser, a diode laser, and scaling and root-planning on periodontally diseased root surfaces: A comparative histologic study. Lasers Surg Med 2003;32:359-66.
  137. Fontana CR, Kurachi C, Mendonca CR, Bagnato VS. Temperature variation at soft periodontal and rat bone tissue during a medium- power diode laser exposure. Photomed Lasres Surg 2004;22:519-22.
  138. Gold SJ, Vilardi MA. Pulsed laser beam effect on gingiva. J Clin Periodontol 1994;21(6):391-96.
  139. Borrajo JL, Varela LG, Castro LG, Rodriguez-Nunez I, Torreira MG: Diode laser (980 nm) as an adjunct to scaling and root planning. Photomed Laser Surg 2004;22:509-12.
  140. Kreisler M, Al Haj H, Daublander M, Gotz H, Duschner H, Willershausen B, D‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on root surface in vitro. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2002;20:63-69.
  141. Meister J, Franzen R. Dentale Lasersysteme Teil II: Der Dioden- Laser. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/07: 185-89.
  142. Alam T, Dawasaz AA, Thukral N, Jangam D. Surgical diode laser excision for peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma: A case report and literature review. J Oral Laser Applications 2008;8:43- 49.
  143. Convissar RA. An overview of laser wavelength used in dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2000;44:753-765.
  144. Kreisler M, Meier C, Stender E, Daubländer M, Willershausen- Zönnchen B, de Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the attachment rate of periodontal ligament cells: An in vitro study. J Periodontol Oct 2001;72(10):1312-17.
  145. Black P. Der Dentallaser in der oralen Chirurgie-Masterthese- Teil2 Laser Journal 1/2007: 16-21, 2007 146. Van Hillegersberg R: Fundamentals of Laser Surgery Eur J Surg Jan 1997;163(1): 3-12.
  146. Haina D, Landthaler M, Braun-Falco O, Waidelich W. Comparison of the maximum coagulation depth in human skin for different types of medical lasers. Lasers Surg Med 1987;7(4): 355-62.
  147. Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract May 2002;32(3):639-48.
  148. McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser-tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol Sep 1990;35(9):1175-209.
  149. Reinisch L. Laser physics and tissue interaction. Otolaryngol Clin North Am Dec 1996;29(6):893-914.
  150. Coluzzi DJ. Fundamentals of dental lasers: Science and instruments. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:751-70.
  151. Maiorana C, Salina S. Versatility of superpulsed diode laser in oral surgery: A clinical report. J Oral Laser Appl 2006;6: 193-99.
  152. Gold SI, Villardi MA. Pulsed laser beam effects on gingiva. J Clin Periodontol 1994;21:391-96.
  153. Kamp M Halbleiterlaser. Vorlesung WS 2006, Technische Physik, Uni Würzburg 2006.
  154. Schäfer O. Die Entwicklung des Diodenlasers bis zur Digitalpulstechnik. Laser Journal 2/2008:6-7.
  155. Nanami T, Shiba H, Ikeuchi S, Nagai T, Asanami S, Shibata T. Clinical applications and basic studies of laser in dentistry and oral surgery. Keio J Med Dec.1993;42(4):199-201.
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.